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心理互助:营造幼儿和谐温馨的家园——小班幼儿心理互助现象初探

来源:儿童网 人气: 发布时间:2019-11-07
在多年的幼儿园保教工作中,笔者发现一些很奇特和有意思的现象:某些幼儿间存在着特殊的心理依赖,这种心理依赖让孩子们互帮互助、共同进步,使幼儿间的关系更

趣发彩票 ZAIDUONIANDEYOUERYUANBAOJIAOGONGZUOZHONG,BIZHEFAXIANYIXIEHENQITEHEYOUYISIDEXIANXIANG:MOUXIEYOUERJIANCUNZAIZHETESHUDEXINLIYILAI,ZHEIZHONGXINLIYILAIRANGHAIZIMENHUBANGHUZHU、GONGTONGJINBU,SHIYOUERJIANDEGUANXIGENGRONGQIA,GANQINGGENGSHENHOU。ZHEIZHONGERSHIDEXINLIYILAIPEIBANZHETAMENDUGUOKUAILEDEYOUERQI,CHUNZHENDEQINGGANHEYOUYINENGMIANYANDAOXIAOXUESHENZHICHUZHONG。ZHEISHIYIZHONGYOUERJIANDEPENGBEIXINLIHUZHUXIANXIANG。ZHEIZHONGLIANGXINGDEGUANXIKEYICUJINYOUERYUANDEHAIZIGENGKUAIDIRONGRENJITI,GENGHAODIYUTARENJIAOWANG。SUOWEIPENGBEIXINLIHUZHUSHIZHIZAIRENJIJIAOWANGGUOCHENGZHONG,RENMENHUXIANGJIYUXINLIANWEI、GULI、QUANDAOHEZHICHI,TIGONGYIZHONGJUYOULEISIYUXINLIZIXUNGONGNENGDEBANGZHUHUODONG。ZHEIZHONGXINLIHUZHUDEGUOCHENGSHIZAITONGBEIJIPENGYOUZHIJIANJINXINGDE,XINLIHUZHUDEKAIZHANHENDACHENGDUSHANGYOULAIYURENMENZHIJIANDEXIANGHUXINLAI,ZHURENZHEHEBEIZHUZHEKEYIZAIHUZHUDEGUOCHENGZHONGHENKUAIJIANLIHUDONGGUANXI,KEYIGENGHAODISHENRENBICIDENEIXINQUTIYANDUIFANGDEQINGGAN、SIWEI。

趣发彩票 LIRUWUGUANCHENXIAOPENGYOUSHIGEXINGGEWENHE、BUTAIAISHUOHUADENANHAI,DIYITIANRENYUANSHIXIANDEHENJUCU,HEBIEDEHAIZISHIZHONGBAOCHIZHEJULI,LAOSHIDUITADEWENROUHEGUANXINYEMEINENGBATACONGZIJIDEXIAOXIAOSHIJIEZHONGLACHULAI。ZHEIYANGDEJIANGJUQUEBEIYIGEJIAOLIHUIZIDEXIAOPENGYOUDAPOLE。LIHUIZIXINGGEHUOPO,TAHUANKUAIDIJIAOLEJISHENG“WUGUANCHEN、WUGUANCHEN”,WUGUANCHENTINGJIANHOUJINGRANKAIXINDIXIAOLE,HAIZHUDONGDIHELIHUIZILALASHOU。ZAIJIAOSHIZUZHIHUODONGSHI,LIANGRENJINGRANZIFADIZOUZAILEYIQI。HUODONGZHONGDETAMENHENKAIXIN,WUGUANCHENDEXIAOLIANSHANGSHIKEDANGYANGZHEXIAORONG。HAIZIJIANNEIZHONGZIRANCHANSHENGDEQINMIGANRANGTAMENLIANGRENCONGCIXINGYINGBULI。XIANGYUEZHERUYUAN、SHOULASHOUDILIYUAN。CIHOUSUIRANLIANGRENDEZUOWEIDIAOKAILE,KESHIGUANXIYIRANQINJIN,RENHEHUODONGZHONGLIANGRENDOUSHIGONGTONGJINXING。

一、理性思考:心理依赖和互助是促进幼儿交往互动的原动力

趣发彩票 YINGGUOJIAOYUJIANIERBAQINGGANJIAOYUHERENDESHENGHUOYIYILIANXIQILAI,TARENWEIJIAOYUDEZHONGRENJIUSHIRANGERTONGGANDAOAI、XUEHUIAI。QINGGANPEIYANGLEERTONGDEZIXINXIN,SHIERTONGDUIZIJI、DUITAREN、DUISHEHUI、DUIWEILAIDOUCHONGMANLEXINXIN。GANGRENYUANDEXIAOBANYOUERYOUQIXUYAOZHEIZHONGAIHEGUANHUAI。GANGRENYUANDEYOUER,TURANGAIBIANLESHENGHUOFANGSHI,LIKAILESHUXIDEHUANJING,JIECHUDAOMOSHENGDECHENGNIANREN,ZHOUWEIDUOLEXUDUOBURENSHIDETONGLINGREN,HUICHUXIANBUANHEJIAOLVQINGXU,ZIRANHUICHANSHENGYIZHONGSHILUOGANHEBUANQUANGAN。JIAOSHIDEANFUGURANZHONGYAO,DANSHIERTONGJIANDEGEXINGCHAYISHITAXUYAOXINLIANWEIDECHENGDUHEXUQIUYEYOUSUOCHAYI。JIAOSHIMIANDUIDESHIQUANTIYOUER,BUKENENGSHIKEGUANZHUGEBIEREN,ZHEISHIMOUXIESHIYINGXINGJIAORUOERTONGDEXINLILUOCHAHUIGENGDA。ZHEISHIHOURUGUOYOUTONGBANDUIQIGUANZHU,HUISHIQICHANSHENGQIANGLIEDEHAOGANHEANQUANGAN、HUANJIEQILIKAIJIAZHANGDEFENLIJIAOLVQINGXU。TONGBANDEYANXINGYEHUICHENGWEIQIXUEXIHEMOFANGDEBANGYANG。ERTONGJIANZHUJIANJIANLILEYIZHONGYILAIHEBEIYILAI、MOFANGHEBEIMOFANG、GUANZHUYUBEIGUANZHUDEGUANXI。ZHEIZHONGGUANXIBUJINJINDUIDANFANGYOULI,DUIERTONGSHUANGFANGDOUHUIQIDAOHENHAODECUJINZUOYONG。ZHEISHIERTONGJIANZIRANCHANSHENGDEYIZHONGYOUAIHEQINMIXINGWEI,ZHEIZHONGQINGGANSHITIANZHENWUXIEDE,ZHEIZHONGAIYESHITEBIEZHENGUIDE。TANENGSHIQINGXUBUANDEYOUERHENKUAIANDINGXIALAI,GANSHOUDAOTARENJIYUDEAI,BINGJIANJIANJIEJIN、JIENATAREN,JINKUAIDIRONGRENJITI。

二、优势剖析:幼儿间的心理依赖和互助有利于促进幼儿社会性发展

JINGGUOZHANGSHIJIANGUANCHA,BIZHEFAXIANYOUERJIANJIANLIQIYIZHONGYOUHAODEXINLIHUZHUGUANXI,DUIYOUERDESHEHUIXINGFAZHANJIWEIYOULI。

1.CUJINYOUERSHIYINGJITINENGLIDEFAZHAN。GETIRONGRUJITIXUYAOYIGEGUOCHENG,RONGRUDEGUOCHENGJIUSHIXINLISHIYINGDEGUOCHENG。CHENGRENHEYOUERJIANXINRENGUANXIDEJIANLIYUANYUANDIYUYOUERYUYOUERJIANXINRENGUANXIDEJIANLI。TONGNIANLINGDUANDEERTONG,TAMENDEXUQIUXIANGJIN,SHENGHUOJINGYANXIANGSI,SUOYIGENGYIXINGCHENGRONGQIADEGUANXI。YOUERJIANDEHUXIANGBANGZHUHEGUANAI,NENGRANGXINLISHIYINGNENGLIJIAOWEIRUOSHIDEHAIZIXUNZHAODAOYIGEBANGYANG,BINGYICIWEIMUBIAOWEIZIJIDINGWEI,NULIRANGZIJIYEJINKUAIDADAOTONGBANDEBIAOZHUN。SUIRANZHEIGEBIAOZHUNZAIJIAOSHIHECHENGRENYANZHONGJUEDEHENDI,DANSHIDUIYUXIAOBANDEYOUERLAISHUO,NENGWEIZIJIZHAODAOYIGEMOFANGHEXUEXIDEBANGYANG,ZHEISHIYIGEYOUERZIQIANGHEZIWOCHENGZHANGYISHIDETIXIAN,YESHIRANGHAIZIZIRANDIJINXING“XINLIDUANRU”,JINKUAIRONGRUJITIDELIANGHAOTUJING。

趣发彩票 2.CUJINYOUERJIANJIAOWANGNENGLIDETIGAO。CHENGRENJIANDEJIAOWANGXUYAOTONGGUOYUYANGOUTONGHEQINGGANJIAOLIUDENGFANGSHI。ERXIAOBANYOU“XINLIHUZHU”XINLIDEYOUERJIAOWANGHUITONGGUOYUYANHUOZHESHIZHITIDONGZUO。YINWEIXIAOBANYOUERDESIWEIFANGSHISHIJUTIDEXINGXIANGSIWEI,DANGTAMENYONGYOUXIANDECIHUIJIAOLIUBUQILAISHI,TAMENHUIZHIJIEYONGXINGDONGBIAOSHI。ERZHEISHIHOUZUOWEIBANGYANGDEHAIZIJIUHUIBIAOXIANCHULIANGHAODE、ZHENGQUEDEXINGWEI,CHENGWEITONGBANXIAOFANGDEBANGYANG,TONGSHIYEZENGJIALETAZISHENDEZERENGAN。ERFANGXIAOZHONGDEHAIZIHUIDEDAOZIFAXUEXIDEYIZHONGKUAILE,ZHENGQUEDEXUEXIXINGWEISHENZHIHUIDEDAOTONGBANDEZANSHANG。ZHEIZHONGCHENGGONGDEXIYUEDADAZENGQIANGLESHUANGFANGDEZIXINXIN,XINGCHENGLIANGXINGDEHUDONGXIAOYING,YOUERJIANHUIYUELAIYUELEJIE,BICIYUELAIYUEMOQI,JIAOWANGYUELAIYUESHUNCHANG,YOUERDEJIAOWANGNENGLIYINCIERDEDAOTIGAO。

3.促进幼儿自立心理的增长。人有被关注的心理需求,但是人不可能时时被关注着。成人如此,孩子亦然。小班幼儿由于年龄小,关注某一事物的时间也有限,时常会被新的事物所吸引。每个孩子总有自己成长的空间和时间,所以当幼儿逐渐接受并慢慢融人新集体后,他对新环境和新事物的关注也多起来了。活动中的孩子会相互鼓励,初期的互助会大大提升幼儿的自信心,得到一种心理上的寄托,但是随着对环境的熟悉,孩子间的心理互助现象逐渐减弱,他们开始趣发彩票地关注自身的发展,儿童教育网,更主动地参与到集体活动中来。在同伴的帮助和鼓励下,孩子的独立性在增强,个性在发展,趣发彩票时候他们会像同伴一样投入到学习和探索新知识中。虽然在遇到困难时也会继续寻找同伴的心理互助,但是这样的情况在逐渐减少,幼儿的自立性正在不断增长。

三、因势利导:积极保护和引导幼儿的互助互赖心理

DUIYOUERHUZHUYILAIXINLIDEJIJIBAOHUHEYINDAO,HAIYAOZHUYIYIXIALIANGGEFANGMIAN:

1.YOUXIAOFAHUIJIAOSHIDEZHUDAOZUOYONG。SHOUXIANJIAOSHIYAOCHENGWEIYOUXINREN。DANGERTONGMIANDUIYIQUNMOSHENGDETONGBANHEJIAOSHISHI,XINLIYALISHIYUANYUANGAOYUJIAOSHIDE。JIAOSHIYAOXUEHUIZIXIGUANCHA,SHANYUFAXIANBINGLIYONGHAIZIZIRANQINJINDETEDIAN,GULIYOUERZIYOUXUANZEHEXIHUANDEHAIZIZUOZAIYIQI,RANGTAMENYIQIHUODONG、YIQIYOUXI、YIQIWUCANWUSHUI,SHITAMENJINKUAIDIJIANLIQIQINMIDEGUANXIHEYOUYI。QICIJIAOSHIYAOCHONGFENLIYONGYOUERJIANDEHUZHUXINGWEI,JIYUTAMENXINLISHANGDEKUANSONG,RANGHAIZIMENBICIZHIJIANYOUQINJINDAOXINREN、YOUXINRENDAOHULAI、YOUHULAIDAOGONGJIN。ZUIHOU,LAOSHIKEYIYOUDIANJIMIANDIZAIBANJIZHONGKAIZHAN“WOYOUHAOPENGYOU”XILIEHUODONG,GULIYOUERJIANXIANGHUDUOLEJIEHEJIAOWANG,RANGYOUERJIANDEJIAOWANGCONG“WOYOUYIGEHAOPENGYOU”DAO“WOYOUHENDUOHAOPENGYOU”,SHIYOUERZAITONGBANDEGUANXINHEBANGZHUXIA,XINLISHANGHENKUAIDISHIYINGYOUERYUANDEHUANJING,BINGJINKUAIDIJIANLIQIZIJIDE“PENGYOUQUAN”,BANGZHUYOUERZOUJINJITI,MAIWENJINRUSHEHUIMENJIANDEDIYIBU。

2.GAODUZHONGSHIJIAZHANGDEPEIHEYINDAO。JIAOSHIZAIFAXIANLEYOUERJIANYOUXINLIHUZHUXIANXIANGSHI,YINGJISHIJIANGZHEIYILIANGHAODE、JIJIDEXIANXIANGGAOZHIJIAZHANG。TIQINGJIAZHANGLIYONGHAOZHEIGEJIAOYUZIYUAN,JIJICHUANGZAOTIAOJIAN、TIGONGSHIKONG,RANGQINJINDEHAIZIMENDUOJIAOWANG,YIZENGQIANGHEGONGGUTAMENDEYOUYIHEJIAOWANGNENGLI。JIAZHANGYAOZIJUEDANDANGQIHAIZIDEDIYIRENJIAOSHIJIAOSE,DUOYUHAIZIGOUTONG,DUOYINDAOYOUERTANTANJITISHENGHUO:BIRUNIXIHUANBANSHANGDESHEI?WEISHENME?NIZAIXUEXIAOXUEDAOLESHENME?NIHEXIAOHUOBANWANLENAXIEYOUXI?SHEIWANCHENGDEHAO?HAOZAINALI?JIANGHAIZIDEHUATICONG“WO”YINDAODAO“TA”,ZAIDAO“WOMENBAN”,BAYOUERDEYISHICONGGUANZHUZIWOYINDAODAOGUANZHUJITISHANGMIANLAI。JIAZHANGYAODUOYINDAOYOUERJIANGSHUBINGZIXIQINGTINGYOUERDEHUAYU,LEJIEYOUERDEXINLIXIANZHUANG,BANGZHUHAIZITUPOJIAOWANGPINGJINGHEDANQIEXINLI,GULIHAIZIDUOJIAOPENGYOU,BANGZHUYOUERPINGWENDUGUORUYUANHOUDESHIYINGQI。

趣发彩票 FAGUOJIAOYUJIALUSUODEBOAIGUANCHANGDAORANGHAIZICONG“ZIAI”DAO“AIQINJINDEREN”,ZAIDAO“AIQUANRENLEI”。ERTONGJIANDEZHEIZHONGZIFADEAISHIYIZHONGKEGUIDEZIYUAN,YESHIRENXINGHESHANDEYIZHONGTIXIAN。ZUOWEIJIAOSHIDEWOMEN,YINGGAIBAWOHAOZHEIZHONGNANNENGKEGUIDERENXINGJIAOYUZIYUAN,QUFACAIPIAODIGUANZHUYOUER,RANGTAMENGANSHOULAIZIGEFANGMIANDEAI。GUANXINYOUER,RANGTAMENXUEHUIAI;JIAOYUYOUER,RANGTAMENQUCHUANBOAI。ZHEISHIERTONGJIAOYUDECHUFADIANHEGUISU。

本文标签:小班幼儿心理互助

内容编辑:xychild
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